Schizophrenie und Zeitwahrnehmung (27.2.12/Tsch)
- Schmidt, H, McFarland, J, Ahmed, M, McDonald, C and Elliott, MA (2011). Low-level temporal coding impairments in psychosis: preliminary findings and recommendations for further studies. J Abnorm Psychol 120, 476-482.
Abstract: The authors investigated whether difficulties with temporal event coding, previously reported in patients with schizophrenia, are already present during first-episode psychosis (FEP). In this experiment, the subjective judgments of the simultaneity of visually presented stimuli were compared between 11 healthy controls, 9 patients with chronic schizophrenia (CSZ), and a sample of 11 FEP patients. Participants were asked to indicate whether 2 vertical bars appeared at the same time or at different times on a computer monitor. CSZ patients' thresholds were elevated, and the FEP sample showed higher thresholds relative to controls. Although preliminary, these findings indicate a generalized disturbance in event-structure coding at early stages of psychosis and question the specificity of its disturbance. Considering the proposed relationship between event-structure coding and the experience of time in general, this study recommends that future studies refocus on psychosis in general, rather than on schizophrenia as a particular case of abnormal temporal processing. In addition, it is suggested that the relevant psychopathology will be best determined by means of a comprehensive analysis of low-level temporal coding performance in different types of psychosis.
- Tschacher, W and Bergomi, C (2011). Cognitive binding in schizophrenia: weakened integration of temporal intersensory information. Schizophr Bull 37 Suppl 2, S13-S22.
Abstract: Cognitive functioning is based on binding processes, by which different features and elements of neurocognition are integrated and coordinated. Binding is an essential ingredient of, for instance, Gestalt perception. We have implemented a paradigm of causality perception based on the work of Albert Michotte, in which 2 identical discs move from opposite sides of a monitor, steadily toward, and then past one another. Their coincidence generates an ambiguous percept of either "streaming" or "bouncing," which the subjects (34 schizophrenia spectrum patients and 34 controls with mean age 27.9 y) were instructed to report. The latter perception is a marker of the binding processes underlying perceived causality (type I binding). In addition to this visual task, acoustic stimuli were presented at different times during the task (150 ms before and after visual coincidence), which can modulate perceived causality. This modulation by intersensory and temporally delayed stimuli is viewed as a different type of binding (type II). We show here, using a mixed-effects hierarchical analysis, that type II binding distinguishes schizophrenia spectrum patients from healthy controls, whereas type I binding does not. Type I binding may even be excessive in some patients, especially those with positive symptoms; Type II binding, however, was generally attenuated in patients. The present findings point to ways in which the disconnection (or Gestalt) hypothesis of schizophrenia can be refined, suggesting more specific markers of neurocognitive functioning and potential targets of treatment.
- Foucher, JR, Lacambre, M, Pham, BT, Giersch, A and Elliott, MA (2007). Low time resolution in schizophrenia Lengthened windows of simultaneity for visual, auditory and bimodal stimuli. Schizophr Res 97:1-3, 118-127.
Abstract: The guarantee of perceptual coherence for events through everyday life situations depends upon the capacity to correctly integrate series of multi-sensory experiences. Patients with schizophrenia have been shown to reveal a deficit in integrating, i.e., "binding", perceptual information together. However, results in the literature have also suggested the reverse effect. Indeed, in certain paradigms patients have revealed more binding phenomenon than healthy controls and reported experiencing two distinct events as occurring "together". This finding suggests that patients may require longer time intervals between two distinct events before being able to perceive them as "one-after-the-other". The question here was to test whether this perceptual binding abnormality in schizophrenia is confined to events within the same modality or whether it is also present across sensory modalities. Thirty patients with schizophrenia were compared with 33 normal controls using a simultaneity judgement paradigm. There were two uni-modal conditions in which stimuli were presented in the same modality (visual or auditory) and one bimodal condition (audio-visual). Participants were presented with stimuli varying across a range of inter-stimulus intervals (ISI). They were required to judge whether they experienced two stimuli as occurring "together" or "one-after-the-other". Compared to controls and in all conditions, patients needed larger ISI to experience two stimuli as "one-after-the-other" (all ISI x Group interactions p<5 x 10(-5)). These abnormalities correlated with the disorganization dimension but not with the dosage of chlorpromazine equivalent. The increase of the time interval needed to perceive two stimuli as "one-after-the-other", reflect an abnormally low time resolution in patients with schizophrenia. We discuss the possible involvement of anatomical disconnectivity in schizophrenia which would specifically affect the time integration properties of neural assemblies.
- Pöppel, E (2009). Pre-semantically defined temporal windows for cognitive processing. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 364, 1887-1896
Abstract: Neuronal oscillations of different frequencies are hypothesized to be basic for temporal perception; this theoretical concept provides the frame to discuss two temporal mechanisms that are thought to be essential for cognitive processing. One such mechanism operates with periods of oscillations in the range of some tens of milliseconds, and is used for complexity reduction of temporally and spatially distributed neuronal activities. Experimental evidence comes from studies on temporal-order threshold, choice reaction time, single-cell activities, evoked responses in neuronal populations or latency distributions of oculomotor responses. The other mechanism refers to pre-semantic integration in the temporal range of approximately 2-3 s. Experimental evidence comes from studies on temporal reproduction, sensorimotor synchronization, intentional movements, speech segmentation, the shift rate of ambiguous stimuli in the visual or auditory modality or the temporal modulation of the mismatch negativity. These different observations indicate the existence of a universal process of temporal integration underlying the mental machinery. This process is believed to be basic for maintenance and change of perceptual identity. Owing to the omnipresence of this kind of temporal segmentation, it is suggested to use this process for a pragmatic definition of the states of being conscious or the 'subjective presence'.
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