Systemtheorie / Selbstorganisationstheorie (19.9.11/Tsch)
- Haken H & Tschacher W (2010). A theoretical model of intentionality with an application to neural dynamics. Mind and Matter, 8, 7-18.
Abstract: In this theoretical study we explore the concept of intentionality. Intentionality is the specific reference that mental phenomena have with respect to objects, also termed the 'aboutness' of cognitive acts. We discuss intentionality on the basis of self-organized pattern formation, a ubiquitous phenomenon in complex open systems. Dynamical systems theory provides an understanding of how emergent variables (order parameters) originate from microscopic variables. Control parameters comprise those external parameters and gradients that drive the systems they represent environmental influences. The relationship between pattern formation and control parameters therefore addresses the functioning of a system in its environment. Our hypothesis is that self-organizing systems exhibit intentional-like capabilities in their responses to environmental influences. This is modeled using differential calculus, by which we demonstrate how pattern formation reduces control parameters in an efficient (i.e., intentional-looking) manner. These ideas are applied to the complex system brain, using the Wilson-Cowan equations of axonal pulse rates in neural networks.
- Tschacher W & Haken H (2007). Intentionality in Non-Equilibrium Systems? The Functional Aspects of Self-Organized Pattern Formation. New Ideas in Psychology, 25, 1-15.
Abstract: Psychology is frequently confronted with mind-body issuesis there a way by which mentalist and physical approaches to cognition can be integrated? Can the intentional attributes of mind be understood in scientific terms? The authors propose that synergetics, the theory of nonlinear complex systems, offers steps towards a possible solution to this conundrum. In particular, we maintain that an essential property of self-organized pattern formation lies within its functionality, this being the ability to optimize, respond and adapt ‘meaningfully’ to environmental constraints. Patterns become functional because they consume in a most efficient manner the gradients which cause their evolution, thereby making synergetic pattern formation appear ‘intentional’. We therefore posit that self-organization phenomena may afford basic explanations for the adaptive, intentional and purposive behavior of many complex systems, in particular of cognitive systems. This present approach elaborates on the second law of thermodynamics.
- Tschacher W & Tröndle M (2011). A dynamic systems perspective on fine art and its market. Futures, 43, 67-75.
Abstract: This article focuses on dynamic systems theory applied to art systems, especially the social system of art. By this integrative approach, the field of art and culture can be linked to, as well as profit from, other fields where systems-theoretical approaches have been influential, such as sociology, psychology, communication theory and the natural sciences. We show that systems models help to describe and conceptualize essential phenomena characteristic of the fine arts, such as pattern formation, reduction of complexity, and self-reference. Pattern formation can be observed in emerging artistic styles, fashions and trends. The property of self-reference becomes tractable by using the concept of endosystems, i.e. systems that include participating observers and second circularity feedback. The consequences of such dynamics is uncertainty, destabilization, and diversification. Endosystemic modeling promises to capture core properties not only of contemporary art, laying an emphasis on novelty and self-reference. Endosystems are appropriate models of further social systems, especially market systems, which pose problems for foresight. Within the horizon of foresight that is at all possible in endosystems, three futures scenarios are worked out for the art system.
- Tschacher W (1997). Prozessgestalten. Göttingen: Hogrefe.
- Kriz J (1997). Systemtheorie. Eine Einführung für Psychotherapeuten, Psychologen und Mediziner. Wien: Facultas
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